3D printing microscopic fish

http://phys.org/news/2015-08-3d-printing-microscopic-fish-team-method.html

These microscopic fish are 3-D-printed to do more than swim

3D-printing microscopic fish: Team demonstrates novel method to build robots with complex shapes, functionalities

Nanoengineers at the University of California, San Diego used an innovative 3D printing technology they developed to manufacture multipurpose fish-shaped microrobots—called microfish—that swim around efficiently in liquids, are chemically powered by hydrogen peroxide and magnetically controlled. These proof-of-concept synthetic microfish will inspire a new generation of “smart” microrobots that have diverse capabilities such as detoxification, sensing and directed drug delivery, researchers said.

The technique used to fabricate the microfish provides numerous improvements over other methods traditionally employed to create microrobots with various locomotion mechanisms, such as microjet engines, microdrillers and microrockets. Most of these microrobots are incapable of performing more sophisticated tasks because they feature simple designs—such as spherical or cylindrical structures—and are made of homogeneous inorganic materials. In this new study, researchers demonstrated a simple way to create more complex microrobots.

The research, led by Professors Shaochen Chen and Joseph Wang of the NanoEngineering Department at the UC San Diego, was published in the Aug. 12 issue of the journal Advanced Materials.

By combining Chen’s 3D printing technology with Wang’s expertise in microrobots, the team was able to custom-build microfish that can do more than simply swim around when placed in a solution containing hydrogen peroxide. Nanoengineers were able to easily add functional nanoparticles into certain parts of the microfish bodies. They installed platinum nanoparticles in the tails, which react with to propel the microfish forward, and magnetic in the heads, which allowed them to be steered with magnets.

“We have developed an entirely new method to engineer nature-inspired microscopic swimmers that have complex geometric structures and are smaller than the width of a human hair. With this method, we can easily integrate different functions inside these tiny robotic swimmers for a broad spectrum of applications,” said the co-first author Wei Zhu, a nanoengineering Ph.D. student in Chen’s research group at the Jacobs School of Engineering at UC San Diego.

These microscopic fish are 3-D-printed to do more than swim

As a proof-of-concept demonstration, the researchers incorporated toxin-neutralizing nanoparticles throughout the bodies of the microfish. Specifically, the researchers mixed in polydiacetylene (PDA) nanoparticles, which capture harmful pore-forming toxins such as the ones found in bee venom. The researchers noted that the powerful swimming of the microfish in solution greatly enhanced their ability to clean up toxins. When the PDA nanoparticles bind with toxin molecules, they become fluorescent and emit red-colored light. The team was able to monitor the detoxification ability of the microfish by the intensity of their red glow.

“The neat thing about this experiment is that it shows how the microfish can doubly serve as detoxification systems and as toxin sensors,” said Zhu.

“Another exciting possibility we could explore is to encapsulate medicines inside the microfish and use them for directed drug delivery,” said Jinxing Li, the other co-first author of the study and a nanoengineering Ph.D. student in Wang’s research group.

These microscopic fish are 3-D-printed to do more than swim

How this new 3D printing technology works

The new microfish fabrication method is based on a rapid, high-resolution 3D printing technology called microscale continuous optical printing (μCOP), which was developed in Chen’s lab. Some of the benefits of the μCOP technology are speed, scalability, precision and flexibility. Within seconds, the researchers can print an array containing hundreds of microfish, each measuring 120 microns long and 30 microns thick. This process also does not require the use of harsh chemicals. Because the μCOP technology is digitized, the researchers could easily experiment with different designs for their microfish, including shark and manta ray shapes.

“With our 3D , we are not limited to just fish shapes. We can rapidly build microrobots inspired by other biological organisms such as birds,” said Zhu.

The key component of the μCOP technology is a digital micromirror array device (DMD) chip, which contains approximately two million micromirrors. Each micromirror is individually controlled to project UV light in the desired pattern (in this case, a fish shape) onto a photosensitive material, which solidifies upon exposure to UV light. The microfish are built using a photosensitive material and are constructed one layer at a time, allowing each set of functional nanoparticles to be “printed” into specific parts of the fish bodies.

“This method has made it easier for us to test different designs for these microrobots and to test different nanoparticles to insert new functional elements into these tiny structures. It’s my personal hope to further this research to eventually develop surgical that operate safer and with more precision,” said Li.

More information: “3D-Printed Artificial Microfish” by Wei Zhu, Jinxing Li, Yew J. Leong, Isaac Rozen, Xin Qu, Renfeng Dong, Zhiguang Wu, Wei Gao, Peter H. Chung, Joseph Wang, and Shaochen Chen, all of the Department of NanoEngineering at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering. This paper was featured as a cover on the Aug. 12, 2015 issue of the journal Advanced Materials. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/adma.201501372/abstract

 

 

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First drug made by a 3D printer

http://qz.com/471030/the-fda-has-approved-the-first-drug-made-by-a-3d-printer/

The FDA has approved the first drug made by a 3D printer

3D printing, a technology still in search of a market, may have just found a home in the world of medicine. The US Food and Drug Administration approved an epilepsy medicine called Spritam that is made by 3D printers, making it the first 3D-printed product that the FDA has approved for use inside the human body.

Aprecia, the pharmaceutical company behind Spritam, says that its new type of tablet is made by 3D-printing layers of the powdered drug, binding the layers of powder together, and then blowing away the excess powder. The drug’s unique structure allows it to dissolve considerably faster than the average pill, which as the news site 3DPrint points out is a boon to seizure sufferers who often are prescribed large, hard-to-swallow pills. Aprecia also says 3D printing will allow doctors to know that the medicine they’re prescribing delivers the exact dose intended, as each pill will be completely uniform.

This could prove to be an important step for integrating 3D printing more deeply into the US health system. Doctors in the US already use a government-sponsored 3D-printing repository to share tool designs to aid in surgeries and treatments; now scientists are working on 3D-printed tracheas and bones, as well as ears, kidneys and skin—which could one day help cover the massive shortage in donor organs.

While the quick-dissolving Spritam tablet is a world away from 3D-printed organs and body parts, its approval shows that the FDA thinks certain 3D-printed materials are safe for human consumption.

Rather like 3D printing itself, this drug could be the base layer the technology slowly builds upon, perhaps generating future medical innovations.

qz.com

by Mike Murphy | August 03, 2015

Mini Jet Engine

http://www.forbes.com/sites/alexknapp/2015/05/11/ge-engineers-3d-printed-a-working-mini-jet-engine/

GE Engineers 3D Printed A Working, Mini Jet Engine

As a tech demonstration, researchers at GE recently built a miniature, backpack-sized jet engine that they made entirely from 3D-printed parts. And not just for looks, either. They were able to fire it up and get it moving to 33,000 rpms.

The engine was built over the course of several years, using a 3D printing technique that melted thin layers of metal powder one on top of each other to build each individual part of the engine. Once all the parts were manufactured, the engine was then assembled. The final product was about eight inches tall and a foot long.

Once the engine was completed, the engine was placed into a test cell that would be used for any other jet engine and fired up.

The engine before assembly. (Credit: GE Reports)

It’s worth noting that this isn’t just a cool thing that GE has put together. It goes to demonstrate just how far 3D printing has come in the aerospace industry.

“This is much more that a stunt,” said Terry Wohlers, a 3D-printing analyst for Wohlers Associates. “It shows what’s possible with additive manufacturing (AM) and 3D printing technology, especially for very demanding applications. GE Aviation will be producing tens of thousands of fuel nozzles by AM for its new-generation LEAP engine in the coming months and years. Airbus has also produced complex metal AM parts that have flown on the new A350.”

forbes.com

by Alex Knapp | MAY 12, 2015 @ 12:14 AM

3Ducation for students?

A Series of 3D Printing Videos To Educate Students Has Hit the Classroom!

http://goo.gl/Znj9ad

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Saying that 3D printing is oftentimes a difficult concept to explain is a bit of an understatement, especially to anyone who works in or related to the field. It took months for my mother to stop asking where the paper went in the printer, and I’m still not fully convinced that she finally understands instead of having just grown tired of my attempting to explain it to her.

However 3D printing isn’t going anywhere anytime soon. It will continue to be an increasingly important part of our lives. Not only as more manufacturing industries integrate additive manufacturing processes into their businesses, 3D printing will be playing ever increasing roles in the healthcare industry, dental applications, and food service, and rapid prototyping will continue to usher in an era of better designed consumer products. It is more important than ever to begin introducing the concepts behind 3D printing to schools now so our current generation grows into the one that will usher in a new age of democratized manufacturing.

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The 3D printing information aggregator 3D Printing for Everyone — 3DP4E — has joined the growing list of companies producing educational materials aimed directly at those who are unfamiliar with 3D printing concepts and technology. Their new series of Whiteboard Animations was specifically developed after 3DP4E founder Ron Rose had recent media studies graduate Noah Waldman produce a four minute video explaining 3D printing technology and processes.

“When I was hired by 3DP4E, I really didn’t know much about 3D Printing,” explained Waldman, who was hired based on multiple white-board animation videos that he has produced and uploaded to YouTube. “But I thought it was such a neat field of technology that I began to read up about it in order to try and get a better understanding of it. Also because it was kind of my job.”

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The first video titled3Ducation 101: What is 3D Printing walks viewers through the basics of both fused deposition manufacturing — FDM — and stereolithography — SLA — 3D printing methods. Rose was so impressed with the video that Waldman produced that he hired him to create an entire series of videos idea for the classroom or just to explain what you to do your parents, friends, or partners who may not get it.

“I think what Noah is creating is just brilliant!” said Rose, the founder and CEO of 3DP4E. “Our goal is to become a resource for people looking to get into 3D Printing, and I feel that these videos are the best way to learn the basics. They are smart, informative and just so entertaining to watch.”

There are currently five videos in the 3Ducation series, including History of 3D Printing, 3D Printing by Any Other Name, What is Digital Manufacturing, and their latest, 3D Printing Materials. Presenting the information using a straightforward and easy-to-follow method like white-board animation is an ideal way to communicate the complexity of 3D printing to neophytes and students alike. All of the 3Ducation videos are available for free and if you would like to share them in your classroom with your students they are available on the 3DP4E YouTube page and their Vimeo page.

3ducation

Those who work in 3D printing-related fields sometimes run into trouble in unexpected avenues — like explaining what they do to those at home. Whether trying to tell Mom what you do all day at work or explaining to students in the classroom, there’s a new educational tool available, thanks to the team at 3D Printing for Everyone (3DP4E). With a new series of Whiteboard Animations from Noah Waldman, 3DP4E’s 3Ducation series has now expanded to five short videos explaining 3D printing technology.

3DPRINT.COM
by  | FEBRUARY 20, 2015

3D printed smoothies!

Flavour of the week: 3D Printed smoothies!

http://3dprint.com/23223/3d-printing-with-banana/

The second attempt appears significantly more palatable.

Bananas have been referred to as “the perfect food.” Not only are they rich in nutrients but, in terms of form, they exemplify the perfect self-contained packaging and delivery systems. Who doesn’t enjoy peeling a banana and admiring its ingenious design? Not content to leave well enough alone,3DigitalCooks, a website devoted to making and reporting “digital gastronomy news” has conceived of a new way to approach the banana.

Printing With Bananas, 3DC’s recent project, combines the smoothie fad with 3D printing. After extolling the nutritional virtues of the banana, 3DC’s banana-based blog entry describes the process through which they 3D printed with bananas. Probably not surprisingly, the consistency of the banana, although ideal for smoothies, proved problematic. Extruding the pureed banana was one thing. Even printing it layer by layer was not so challenging, but getting the end result to be anything but a puddle of formerly firm banana was difficult.

3DC solved the consistency problem by consulting the experts at the FoodDev section of Reddit, who recommended adding a thickener — potato starch proved to be the best — to the pureed bananas, ensuring that the printed end result would take a form other than unmanageable (and, frankly, unappealing) liquidy mess. However, the tendency of bananas to turn brown when exposed to air needed to be confronted, so the team added orange juice to counteract the darkening. The results were less than impressive and we’re wondering if nobody on the 3DC had a grandmother who could recommend lemon juice.

In any case, consistency issues were surmounted and the 3DC team got to work 3D printing. They experimented with temperatures and the amount of potato starch to water and orange juice proportions, and struggled over unsightly lumps and discoloration. Their solutions are provided at the end of the blog, although, clearly, anyone willing to take up the torch and 3D print their own banana-flavored delicacies is encouraged to experiment with recipes, temperatures, and consistency.

Although the “Printing With Bananas” blog entry doesn’t provide information about the equipment 3DC uses to produce their 3D-printed digital edibles, their site explains that they use PLYUMP, an open hardware peristaltic extruder, which is designed for use with 3D printers. Luis Rodriguez Alcalde, founder of 3DigitalCooks, describes the evidently aggravating process of finding the best extruder for the team’s purposes. Unable to find a suitable existing extruder, he set about designing and creating his own; the PLYUMP currently in use is version 0.43.

extruder

In addition to 3D printing bananas, 3DC’s collaborators, from Amsterdam to Portland, have shared their own digital edibles projects. There’s the “Bot-B-Q,” an open source 3D printing barbecue from Frankfurt, Germany, “Laser Cooking” using a laser cutter as a dry-heating cooking device from the Fukuchi Lab in Japan, and from Texas, 3D printed “Piq Chocolates” with personal inscriptions, plus a range of other links to digital food prep sites making 3DC definitely worth perusing even if the projects aren’t feasible due to your own limitations — equipment, palate, or otherwise.

Have you ever tried 3D printing with banana puree?  How about any other foods?  Let’s hear your thoughts in the 3D Printing & Bananas forum thread on 3DPB.com.

3DPRINT.COM
by  | NOVEMBER 19, 2014

First 3D printed laptop

Thanks to the massive support that it received on Indiegogo, it looks like we’re going to be seeing and hearing a lot more about 3D-printed laptops very soon! 🙂

http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-11/11/pi-top

With just 68 hours till the deadline, the world’s first 3D-printed Raspberry Pi laptop, Pi-Top, has already smashed its Indiegogo campaign target, racking up a whopping $129,000 (£81,000).

What makes Pi-Top stand out is that it fuses a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) design and 3D printing — a combination that endows you with the prerequisite know-how to create your own hardware product, according to its creators.

The main aim of the project is to make “hardware as accessible as software,” so the brains behind this 3D-printed laptop want to make their product as beginner-friendly as possible.

With that in mind, the creators — a group of studentengineers from various UK universities — have ensured that anybody can make the kit in an evening.

Creativity is also key to the product as Pi-Top aims to provide a platform on which you can hone your computing skills and learn to code your own hardware. What’s more, as learning through gaming has become a big thing these days, Pi-Top wants its consumers to take part in that trend. The makers state on their Indiegogo page that, “a gamified learning experience will take you to a stage where you are designing your own components and products”.

While the Pi-Top boasts versatility through its customisable design, whereby you can 3D-print your own 5″ x 5″ case, the product’s not just about the appearance. The makers want you to “learn how to make and control home automation devices, robots, and consumer electronics,” and they’ve also toured the UK, imparting their technological skills to UK pupils.

WIRED.CO.UK
by EMIKO JOZUKA | 11 NOVEMBER 14 

New materials used in 3D printers

Think 3D printers are the only thing that keep developing? Check out this article to see how the materials being used in 3D printers evolve as well 🙂

http://3dprint.com/22837/adding-quasicrystals/

Quasicrystals-3d-printing-strong-parts-1

Advances in 3D printing aren’t only occurring in the technology of the machines or in the materials that can be used for printing, but also in the very creation of the materials themselves. As 3D printers become a prominent method for the creation of manufacturing components, the need for the production of stronger and more stress-resistant parts calls for the creation of new materials. And with global revenues of US $2.2 billion generated through additive manufacturing techniques, you can bet that this has the attention of a large number of researchers around the world.

At the University of Lorraine in France, researchers have developed a metal alloy with properties that are crystal-like in nature. This type of Complex Metal Alloy (CMA) is known as a quasicrystal and forms an integral component in the design and creation of new materials for 3D printing. CMA materials are of particular interest because of properties such as high resistance to wear and corrosion as well as low friction. The need to develop new CMA materials comes from the inherently brittle nature of the currently existing CMAs, something that prevents their implementation on a large enough scale to be useful to large manufacturers.

It is through the incorporation of this new CMA into a composite material, that addresses its inherent weaknesses while bringing its strengths into play, that may make this shift in scale possible. The composite material that has been developed for use in 3D printing to date, has mechanical properties similar to those present in composites of brass and steel, but provide the advantage of having a significantly lower density.

The research and its conclusions performed by Samuel Kenzari, David Bonina, Jean Marie Dubois and Vincent Fournée of the University of Lorraine, has been published in a paper titled “Complex Metallic Alloys as New Materials for Additive Manufacturing” and was published in the Journal of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials. The polymer matrix composites currently in use in 3D printing have been successfully reinforced with quasicrystals, according to the research team.

The success has been such that commercialization of the material is already underway. Researcher Vincent Fournée noted that there has been particular interest from the aeronautics and automobile industries as the reduction in density leads to a reduction in the overall weight of the vehicle. This lowered weight increases fuel efficiency, something which he says has great appeal to those sectors.

The next frontier for the application of this new material is in the area of health, and the researchers have already begun a series of new investigations that will lead in that direction.  What do you think of this new material?  Discuss in the Adding Quasicrystals to Complex Metal Alloys forum thread on 3DPB.com.

3DPRINT.COM
by  | NOVEMBER 4, 2014

3D printing revolutionising space

Check out this interview with Mike Chen, the Chief Strategy Officer for Made in Space, to see his vision of how 3D could revolutionise space!

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/…/How-3D-printing-could-change-t…

How 3D printing could change the space industry

Made in Space Chief Strategy Officer Mike Chen discusses how 3D printing can change the game of space exploration.

Mike Chen, Chief strategy officer at Made In Space says that launching a 3D printer into space will enable huge efficiencies in space exploration.

Currently, any parts needed to fix the International Space Station have to be taken up with astronauts in a rocket.

Sending a printer into space will allow objects to be made in orbit, without wasting fuel carrying extra parts.

telegraph.co.uk

by Olivia Rzadkiewicz, Video source Bloomberg | 10:14AM BST 14 Oct 2014

3D printed headdress!

3D printing helps create this headdress that responds to brain activity! 🙂

http://www.inside3dp.com/3d-printed-headdress-shows-brain-a…

3D printed headdress maps thoughts with color. Credit - Sensoree

3D printed headdress shows your brain activity

It looks like you’ve come straight out of the shower and have forgotten to rinse your head after shampooing, but it’s far more fascinating than that. A fashion designer has created a 3D printed headdress that indicates what parts of your brain are working, by flashing different colors and sectors.

NEUROTiQ is the brainchild of fashion designer Kristin Neidlinger, the founder of SENSOREE, who used 3D printing with EEG brain sensors to create this unusual head attire.

A 3D printed brain animating accessory

Neidlinger calls NEUROTiQ a ‘brain animating fashion item’, as it maps your thoughts and then translates them into different colors. For instance, red indicates deep sleep, orange shows a meditative state, and consciousness is yellow-green. A combined color display of blue, purple and red displays indicate multi-sensory gamma brain activity.

SENSOREE specialize in creating wearable technology with a difference. Their designs often include bio.media, which reveals something about the wearer that they themselves might not be aware of communicating.

Futuristic materials

To create these designs, Neidlinger chose futuristic materials and typically embeds them with bio sensory technology. This not only provides an emotionally based creation controlled by our bodies, but allows others to be aware of our most intimate feelings.

3D printed neuron globules embedded with bio.media . Credit: Sensoree

“I love materials,” Neidlinger told 3DPrint.com, “I am a tactile enthusiast and have always loved the qualities of textures and structures of shape. The NeurotiQ was my first work with 3D printing. It was a grand experiment with materials. Currently, 3D prints are solid objects and it is challenging to find comfort and movement on the body. The fashions are more like armor.”

Mapping the inner workings of the human brain

The headdress itself has been 3D printed as a knitted design, which could been seen as representing the complicated pattern of neurons and synapses within our own brain structure. Embedded within the 3D knit are small light points that respond to Emotiv Epoc EEG brain sensors called neuron globules.

There are 14 of these LED 3D printed globules, which once embedded into the nylon ‘wool’, then had to be hand knitted into the headdress. This, as you can imagine, was not simple task, and took 102 hours to complete.

“To make the forms flexible, I thought to combine traditional hand craft of knitting with the new technology of 3D printing,” said Neidlinger. “3D printing offers sculptural detail that is so fantastically intricate. I love the fact that you can dream up any design and make it tangible. The possibilities seem so vast – from designing jewelry to automated space stations, so why not space station jewelry? I am especially fond of working with Formlab’s Form 1 3D printer. The resolution is so fine and the resin has a nice capture of light. So far we are delighted and cannot wait to see what will happen on the runway!”

3D printed fashion fads?

MACHINIC, a San Francisco based digital prototyping and consulting company, helped Neidlinger with her NEUROTiQ headdress. Her colleagues at SENSOREE Grant Patterson and Nathan Tucker also lent a hand.

What's next for 3D printed fashion? Credit: Sensoree

The headdress made its debut at New York Fashion Week, where it was accompanied by other 3D printed designs, including several 3D printed dresses.

As for wearable technology, it appears that we are now becoming obsessed with creating items of clothing that reveal more than we could possibly say on any social media site. But when will it be enough, and is anyone apart from ourselves actually that interested?

inside3dp.com

by Janey Davies | Sep 26 2014 , 09:00:50

3D printed military grade drones

The future US military drones look like they’re going to have a completely 3D-printed body and an Android phone for a brain. All for just $2500 a pop, with a wait of just over a day!

http://www.wired.co.uk/…/ar…/2014-09/17/military-grade-drone

We have 3D printed keysguns and shoes — now a research team at the University of Virginia has created a 3D printed UAV drone for the Department of Defense.

In the works for three years, the aircraft, no bigger than a remote-controlled plane, can carry a 1.5-pound payload. If it crashes or needs a design tweak for a new mission, another one can be printed out in a little more than a day, for just $2,500 (£1533). It’s made with off-the-shelf parts and has an Android phone for a brain.

“We weren’t sure you could make anything lightweight and strong enough to fly,” says David Sheffler, who led the project. Sheffler is a former engineer for Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce who now teaches at the university. After he created a 3D printed jet engine in one of his classes, the MITRE Corporation, a DoD contractor, asked him to create a 3D printed UAV that could be easily modified and built with readily available parts.

The first prototype, the orange and blue model seen in the video above, was based on a conventional radio-controlled (RC) aircraft made of balsa wood, which is much lighter and stronger than the ABS plastic used in the university’s 3D printers. The same plane made of plastic would have weighed five times as much as the wood version. “You’re printing out of a material that’s really not well-suited to making an airplane,” Sheffler explains. On top of that, the way 3D printing works –building things in layers — led to structural weaknesses in the aircraft.

To account for those downsides, Sheffler’s team reworked the design. They settled on a “flying wing” design, in which the whole aircraft is basically one big wing, and called it the Razor. The latest (third) prototype is made of nine printed parts that click together like Lego. The centre of the plane is all one piece, with a removable hatch that offers access the inner cargo bay. All of the electronics live in there, including a Google Nexus 5 smartphone running a custom-designed avionics app that controls the plane, and an RC-plane autopilot that manages the control surfaces with input from the phone. The Razor’s wing structure is one piece, with an aileron, winglets, and mount for the small jet engine that clip on.

The aircraft, with a four-foot wingspan, weighs just 1.8 pounds. Loaded with all the electronics gear, it comes in at just under 6 pounds. That lets it fly at 40 mph for as long as 45 minutes, though the team’s working to get that up to an hour. An earlier prototype could top 100 mph, and the team believes the plane could hit 120 mph, at the cost of a very quickly drained battery.

It can carry 1.5 pounds, so attaching a camera to it would be no problem. The batteries take two hours to fully charge and are easily swapped out, so if you’ve got three or four packs on hand, the Razor can be in the air nearly continuously. The plane can be controlled from up to a mile away, or fly on its own using preloaded GPS waypoints to navigate. The team uses the Nexus smartphone’s 4G LTE as well, meaning commands could be sent from much farther away, though FAA guidelines have kept them from long-distance testing.

Here’s where the 3D printing really comes in handy: The design can be modified — and reprinted — easily, to be bigger or smaller, carry a sensor or a camera, or fly slower or faster. The plane can be made in 31 hours, with materials that cost $800 (£490.75). Electronics (like the tablet-based ground station) push the price to about $2,500 (£1,533). That’s so cheap, it’s effectively disposable, especially since you can make another one anywhere you can put a 3D printer. If one version is flawed or destroyed, you can just crank out another.

Though the team’s research contract has run out, they’re hoping to get another one next year. If Sheffler’s right about how the technology will evolve, MITRE and the DoD would be wise to extend the partnership. “3D printing is at the phase where personal computers were in the 1980s,” Sheffler says. “The technology is almost unbounded.”

“This program was really tasked with showing what is possible.”

WIRED.CO.UK
by JORDAN GOLSON | 17 SEPTEMBER 14