Objects that couldn’t be made before 3D printers existed!

http://gizmodo.com/objects-that-couldnt-be-made-before-3d-printers-existed-1718072112

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

Objects That Couldn’t Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

3D printing isn’t just for making unique stuffed animals or weird fake meat. It allows us to fabricate objects we never could with traditional manufacturing. Here are some of the incredible things we can print now, which were nearly impossible to make before.

Personalized Car Parts

3D printing can make car parts that are custom-built for the driver’s body and comfort: an ergonomic steering wheel, for example. Last month, Fortune reported Ford’s partnership with California-based 3D printing company Carbon3D. The automakers themselves can benefit from 3D printed parts, too. Instead of the ol’ Ford assembly line, engineers can make manufacturing and design more iterative with 3D printed materials, since prototyping suddenly becomes faster and cheaper and testing becomes more frequent and thorough.

You see, many products—from drinking cups to video game consoles to car parts—are created in a process called “injection molding.” That’s when a material, like glass or metal or plastic, is poured into a mold that forms the product. But with 3D printing, you can design a crazy object on your computer, and it can be turned into reality.

“3D printing bridges the gap between the digital and the physical world,” says Jonathan Jaglom, CEO of 3D printer manufacturer MakerBot, “and lets you design pretty much anything in digital form and then instantly turn it into a physical object.”

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

Lighter Airplanes

There have been lots of materials used to make planes lighter, and thus more fuel efficient and greener. But 3D-printed materials can cut weight by up to 55%, according to Airbus, which announced its involvement with 3D printing last year.

In February, Australian researchers unveiled the first 3D-printed jet engine in the world.

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

3D-printed polymers often have “high strength to weight ratios,” says Kristine Relja, marketing manager at Carbon3D, the same company that’s working with Ford on the 3D-printed car parts. 3D-printed plane parts use that strength-to-weight ratio to their advantage. It gives them an edge over traditional materials, like the aluminum often found in seat frames.

“If the arm rest of each seat of a plane were replaced with a high strength to weight ratio part, the overall weight of the plane would drop, increasing fuel efficiency and lowering the overall cost of the plane,” Relja says.

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

Detailed Molds of Your Jaw

Possibly the arena 3D printing handedly dominates is personal health. Our bodies are unbelievably individualized, idiosyncratic flesh bags filled with biological items uniquely shaped to each person. Since customization is so critical, especially in surgical implants, 3D printing can really shine here.

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

Let’s start with dental trays: Those molds of your chompers that’re made with gross cement stuff that you have to leave in your mouth for minutes on end. They’re useful because they can help dentists and orthodontists create appliances like retainers or braces, and can give them a three dimensional, kinesthetic mold of your mouth.

Over at Stratasys, the 3D printing company that owns MakerBot, 3D-printed dental trays are going from CAD file to model, blazing trails in orthodontics. It gives orthodontists and dentists a cheap, accurate glimpse into a patient’s maw. It’s way easier than those nasty physical impressions with the cement, and way less gag-inducing.

Customized Surgical Stents

Stents are those little tubes surgeons stick in the hollow parts of your body—a blood vessel or artery, say—to hold it open and allow it to function properly. Usually, they’re mesh, but stents that are 3D-printed can have an edge, since they’re able to be customized more and are made with cheaper, flexible polymers that can dissolve safely into the bloodstream in a couple years.

At the Children’s Hospital of Michigan in the Detroit Medical Center, a 17-year-old girl was suffering from an aortic aneurysm, a potentially fatal heart condition that was discovered with a precautionary EKG. That’s when Dr. Daisuke Kobayashi and his team turned to 3D printing. A 3D printed model of her heart allowed the doctors to know exactly where to put stents in an otherwise delicate operation for a young patient.

In other cases, the surgical stents themselves are 3D printed: University of Michigan doctors have also implanted 3D-printed stents just above infant boys’ lungs to open their airways help them breathe normally on their own. The advantage of using 3D printing here is that doctors were able to create custom stents that could fit the kids’ individual anatomies, quickly and cheaply.

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

Buckyballs

No, not the tiny magnetic choking hazards. We’re talking about models of Buckminsterfullerene, the molecule. It’s every chemistry teacher’s dream. 3D printers can produce tangible, big models of molecules. And they’re accurate, too. This type of complex geometry is really hard to pull off with injection molding. The closest thing we had before was basically popsicle sticks and Elmer’s.

3D printing not only helps us learn more about what molecules look like by making lifesized models of them—it also helps us make actual molecules. Earlier this year, Dr. Martin Burke at the University of Illinois led the construction of a “molecule-making machine”: It’s a machine that synthesizes small, organic molecules by welding over 200 pre-made “building blocks” and then 3D printing billions of organic compound combinations. This could “revolutionize organic chemistry,” the paper in the journal Science reported, significantly speeding up the process to test new drugs.

What’s cool about 3D printing is that it makes ambitiously designed objects way more feasible. Specifically, 3D printing can make those “complex geometries” that injection molding can’t: That is, stuff that’s in obscure shapes, like long twisty mobius strips or zillion-sided polygons.

Replacement Parts for Your Organs

3D printing can be used to make surgically-implanted hardware that protects or supports damaged organs. This could lead the way to custom repairs for damaged tracheas or windpipes, for instance. Sometimes part of a windpipe needs to be removed, but the two remaining ends need to be joined together—if they can’t be joined together, the patient may die.

3D bioprinting to the rescue! It can replicate the mechanical properties of the trachea. That’s right: a living, biological tracheal replacement can be made from a mix of 3D printing and tissue engineering. That’s what the Feinstein Institute for Medical Research did. They modified a 3D printer to use a syringe filled with living cells that produce collagen and cartilage. Within hours, bioengineered tracheas can be created on-the-spot quickly and cheaply. And that’s a key strength for 3D printing: fast prototypes.

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

Organs and Bones

The most futuristic use of for these magical printers? They could, one day, create internal organs. That’s a literal lifesaver for folks who need an organ transplant. Also possibly available: eyes, blood vessels, noses, ears, skin, and bones. Even hearts.

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

And this isn’t just science fiction. In 2013, medical company Organovo started selling 3D-printed liver tissue. It’ll be a while before a fully functioning liver can be printed, but it’s a big step in the right direction, even if it just means prototypes and experimental liver-like structures.

As if that wasn’t incredible enough, we can also create replicas of people’s existing internal organs. With the help of CT scan data, docs can whip up three dimensional, touchable copies of individuals’ guts, in all their nuanced, unique glory. This can help medical professionals better find tumors or other irregularities. (Not to mention it could possibly take the gross awesomeness out of biology class dissections.)

And already, companies are creating cheap, 3D-printed prosthetic limbs for kids. A whole generation is growing up with 3D printing — not just as a toy, but a vital part of their bodies.

Objects That Couldn't Be Made Before 3D Printers Existed

gizmodo.com

by Bryan Lufkin | 8/11/15 4:34pm

Help for animals – 3D printing

5 Brave Animals Benefiting from 3D Printing, Including TurboRoo the Chihuahua and Holly the Horse 🙂

http://goo.gl/jEOG0f

Animals helped by 3D printing

The customization enabled by 3D-printed parts has been celebrated for how it can advance medicine, from prosthetic limbs to better pacemakers. At the same time, it’s been hailed as a potentiallygreener approach to manufacturing. Not only can these designs be fabricated by anyone who has access to a 3D printer, thus reducing the need to ship specialized parts, this additive process can cut down on material waste.

The technology has also inspired animal lovers and veterinarians to help all kinds of creatures, from ducks to horses. On the following pages, we’ve collected heartwarming and innovative ways 3D technology is helping animals have better lives.

TREEHUGGER.COM
by Margaret Badore | January 7, 2015

First 3D printed knee for cat!

Cyrano the cat gets a second chance to be able to use a leg deteriorated from bone cancer again, with the help of the first 3D printed knee joint ever made for cats! 🙂

http://www.engineering.com/…/3D-Printing-Creates-the-Worlds…

3D printing, medicine, cat, surgery

A Weighty Dilemma

It’s the kind of diagnosis you dread. When Cyrano developed bone cancer in his left hind leg, his owners wanted to get him the best treatment possible to bring him back to full health. After successful radiation treatment that eliminated the tumour, Cyrano went into full remission. Unfortunately, because of the invasive nature of the cancer, Cyrano was left with bone deterioration in his distal femur and he was unable to use his painful knee joint. In cases like this, surgeons normally choose to amputate the affected limb; however, at 26 lbs, Cyrano wouldn’t be able to support his weight with only three legs. Undeterred, Cyrano’s owners enlisted the help of experienced veterinary surgeon and orthopaedic specialist Dr Denis Marcellin-Little and his long-time collaborator Ola Harrysson, Professor of Industrial and Systems Engineering at North Carolina State University to create a custom solution for their beloved pet.

Getting Cyrano Back on His Feet

3D printing, medicine, cat, surgery

Dr Marcellin-Little and Prof Harrysson have worked with Materialise using Additive Manufacturing in surgeries for over 10 years. With amputation out of consideration, they felt that 3D Printing could provide an ideal solution for Cyrano because of its ability to create small but detailed parts to exacting specifications. Cyrano would thus become one of the very first cats to receive a miniature, limb-sparing total knee arthroplasty. Starting with CT scans of both hind legs, Dr Marcellin-Little and Prof Harrysson used Materialise’s Mimics Innovation Suite to generate accurate 3D models of Cyrano’s leg. Adapting the design of a knee implant used in dogs, in collaboration with BioMedtrix, an animal implant company, they then created a miniature implant that fit to the exact anatomical structure of Cyrano’s leg, and the surgical plan needed to successfully realize the procedure. Because of the small size of the bones, the integrated ability of the Mimics Innovation Suite to engineer parts on a personalised anatomical model facilitated a process that would have otherwise been extremely difficult to manage and perform accurately.

Building Strength and Integration Features Into Implants

Knowing the bone structure around the joint was weak, the implant was designed with stems that would anchor it into the bones. Materialise technology partner EOS then printed the implant using cobalt chromium, a metal strong enough to support Cyrano’s weight and the wear and tear that daily use would exert on the thin parts. Building the implant by Direct Metal Laser Sintering meant that mesh and porous areas that would promote integration of the implant into the bone could also be built into the piece as it was being created. These features, only achievable using Additive Manufacturing, provide enhanced long-term stability over traditional implants, giving surgeons a new option for non-standard cases such as Cyrano’s that can be tailored exactly to their needs. Since his surgery Cyrano has returned to his family, and although he now walks with a limp, he can move freely again with full use of his joint. With 3D Printing now entering the veterinary realm, cats are one step closer to experiencing their full nine lives.

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